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        物流英語c沒hapter 3 Transportation

        上傳人:仙*** 文檔編號:176761715 上傳時間:2022-12-23 格式:PPT 頁數:68 大?。?.99MB
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        1、Chapter three TransportationLearning objectivenTo understand the basic modes of transportation and their featuresnTo compare the different modes of transportationnTo know multimodel transportationTransportationnTransportation,which can be defined as the actual,physical movement of goods and people b

        2、etween two points,is pivotal to the successful operation of any supply chain because it carries the goods,literally,as they move along the chain.Transportation influences,or is influenced by,many logistics activities to include:TransportationnMajor macro environmental factors resulting in different

        3、transportation system are:Distance;An individual countrys topology;Economy infrastructure;Geographic conditions.nAn increasing number of shipments are being transported between multiple countries(Table 6-1)TransportationnThe information on rail gauge is intriguing.China and United States:one size-st

        4、andard-rail gauge(1.435 meters)in their rail infrastructure;Brazil:broad gauge(1.676 meters),standard gauge,and narrow gauge(1.000 meter)in its rail infrastructure;India:broad gauge and narrow gauge;United Kingdom:predominately uses standard gauge rail,a small proportion of its rail system consists

        5、of broad gauge rail.Transportation ModesnThe attractiveness of a particular transportation mode depends on the following attributes:Cost(piece that a carrier charges to transport a shipment);Speed(elapsed transit time from pickup to delivery);Reliability(consistency of delivery);Capability(amount of

        6、 different types of products that can be transported);Capacity(Volume that can be carried at one time);Flexibility(ability to deliver the product to the customer)Transportation ModesnIt is important to recognize that public policy can affect a modes performance on these attributes:Railroads,for exam

        7、ple,were the dominant mode,as measured by ton miles(the number of tons multiplied by the number of miles transport)and revenuesExample in US:The different construction cost takers of railroads and interstate HighwayTransportation ModesnAirfreightThe speed,particularly on the line-haul(terminal-to-te

        8、rminal movement of freight or passengers);Drawback:a.Expensive cost due to the distance to the consignee;b.Needs accessorial service(transportation service that is supplemental to the line-haul);c.Belly freight limits the capability available for air shipments and is particularly problematic with re

        9、spect to narrow-body airfreight.d.Airfreight rates discourage bulk cargo and use dimensional weight to determine a shipments billable weight;e.The reliability of airfreight is somewhat problematic.Transportation ModesnAirfreightExamples of products that move by air includes:Wearing apparel;Electroni

        10、c or electrical equipment,such as computers,televisions,and DVD players;Printed matter;Machinery and parts;Cut flowers and nursery stock;Auto parts and accessories;Fruits and vegetables;Metal products;Photographic equipment,parts,and film;Transportation ModesnMotor CarrierThe most important business

        11、 user of the highway system is the motor carrier industry;One way of classifying motor carrier is according to whether they carry less-than-truckload(LTL)or truckload(TL)traffic;Although US motor carriers can travel wherever there are roads,their length of haul is mitigated by several factors,such a

        12、s speed limits and hours-of-service both of that have long been justified on the basis of safety concerns.Transportation ModesnMotor CarrierAdvantages:Its flexibility;The ability to deliver the product to the customer;The affecting factors to the reliability of motor carrier delivery:Weather conside

        13、rations;Highway congestion.Transportation ModesnPipelinePipelines are a unique mode of transportation because it is the only one without vehicles,and this is significant for several reasons:No need for vehicle operators;Fewer possibilities of accidents;Avoid the source of excess capability from back

        14、haul.Transportation ModesnPipelineFrom a capability perspective,pipelines are unique limited in the sense that products must be liquid,liquefiable,or gaseous in nature.Slurry systems allow bulk commodities to become liquefiable by grinding the solid material to a certain particular size,mixing it wi

        15、th a liquid to form a fluid muddy substance,pumping that substance through a pipeline,and then decanting the liquid and removing it,leaving the solid material.Although pipeline tend to have limited capabilities with respect to the products that can be transported,pipelines are capable of transportin

        16、g very large product volume.Transportation ModesnRailroadsRailroad reliability is affected by weather and topography significantly;Surface Transportation Board(STB)-a government agency with responsibility for regulating railroad pricing and service issue.Freight railroads have tended to focus on low

        17、er-value,high-volume shipments of bulk-type commodities such as coal,chemicals,farm products,and nonmetallic minerals.Transportation ModesnRailroadsComparisons:Produced value:railroads are superior to air,motor,and pipeline,but inferior to water;Flexibility:railroads are less flexible than motor car

        18、riers but greater flexible than air,water,and pipeline;Capability:railroads are superior to air and motor,but not as good as pipeline and water;Cost and speed:railroads are just in the middle of the five modes.Transportation ModesnWaterFreight moves by water on inland waterways and sea.Problems to t

        19、he reliability water freight:A.External focus:Drought situations;Icing situation;Flooding;B.Internal focus:Waterways lock systemTransportation ModesnWaterDrawbacks:The inflexibility of inland water transportation is that it can only operate where there are appropriate waterways;Users of inland water

        20、 transportation need to be located on or near commercial waterways.Characteristics:Water transportation is relatively inexpensive to users;Water transportation tend to focus on lower-value bulk commodities that can be handled by mechanical means;Water carriers offer the greatest capability,or volume

        21、 that can be carried at one time;Transportation ModesnIntermodal TransportationIntermodal transportation occurs when two or more modes work closely together in an attempt to utilize the advantages of each mode while at the same time minimizing their disadvantage.Piggyback transportation:trailer-on-f

        22、latcar;container-on-flatcar;Intermodal transportation refers to transportation when using a container or other equipment that can be transferred from the vehicle of one mode to the vehicle of another mode without the contents being reloaded or disturbed.The container is regarded the key development

        23、in intermodal over the past 30 years.Transportation ModesnIntermodal TransportationContainer can range between 10 and 53 feet in length,a commodity used metric is TEU,which stands for 20-foot equivalent unit;Container also spurred cooperation between various modes to develop more effective and effic

        24、ient transport offerings,such as land bridge service.Transportation SpecialistsnFreight Forwarders are not modes,but from the shippers viewpoint,they are analogous to other carriers.There are two types of domestic freight forwarders-surface and air-and they can best be thought of as consolidators of

        25、 freight.nShippers associations perform basically the same function as surface and air freight forwarders,except that they do not operate as profit-making organizations.The main benefit of shippers association,whether they are full service or rate negotiators,is transportation cost saving for its me

        26、mbers.Transportation SpecialistsnBrokers are another type of transportation specialist;they are companies that look to match a shippers freight with a carrier to transport it.Brokers look to secure the best transportation rate and service package available for shippers,while attempting to ensure tha

        27、t carriers operate as close as possible to maximum capability.In some cases,third-party logistics companies are involved in arranging transportation services.nParcel carriers,companies that specialize in transporting parcels,which are often referred to as packages that weigh up to 150 pounds.Parcel

        28、Post,a service of the U.S.Postal Service that was specifically established to send packages through the mail systems-weight and distance.United Parcel Service,which financially dwarfs any other transportation company in the United StatesTransportation RegulationnEnvironmental RegulationThe Environme

        29、ntal protection Agency(EPA),a U.S.federal regulatory agency that was established to protect human health and the environment,influences transportation in a number of different ways.Noise Pollution;Air pollution;Water pollution;Resource conservation;Transportation RegulationnSafety RegulationThe U.S

        30、Department of Transportation(DOT)is the federal government body with primary responsibility for transportation regulation.Safety regulation of inland water carriers-U.S Coast Guard(a part of the U.S.Department of Homeland Security)Air transportation safety-The Federal Aviation Administration(FAA)Lar

        31、ge trucks and buses-The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration(FMCSA)Railroad industry-The Federal Railroad Administration(FRA)Pipeline and Hazardous Cargos-The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration(PHSMA)Transportation RegulationnEconomic RegulationEconomic regulation in trans

        32、portation refers to control over business practices and activities such as entry and exit,pricing,service,accounting and financial issues,and mergers and acquisitions.Two key economic regulatory bodies:The Interstate Commerce Commission(ICC)-with the authority over rail,motor,inland water,and oil pi

        33、pelinesThe Civil Aeronautics Board(CAB)-with the authority over air transportation.Reduction in economic regulation:In 1985 the CAB went out of existence;The ICC Termination Act of 1995 eliminated the ICC and transferred the remaining economic regulatory functions to the Surface Transportation Board

        34、(STB)Legal Classification of CarriersnCommon CarrierThe key factor that separates a common carrier from other forms of transportation is that the common carrier has agreed to serve the general public.To ensure that the general public is adequately serviced,common carriers assumed four specific oblig

        35、ations:to serve,to deliver,to charge reasonable rates,to avoid discrimination in pricing and service.nContract CarrierA contract carrier offers a specialized service to customers on a contractual basis,and the contract specifies the compensation to be received,the services to be provided,and the typ

        36、e of equipment to be used,among others.Legal Classification of CarriersnContract CarrierThe contract carrier is under no obligation to render services to the general public and only has to serve customers with whom it has contracts;The contract carrier is under no obligation to treat its customers o

        37、n equal basis.Legal Classification of CarriersnExempt CarriernExempt Carriers are for-hire carriers that have been exempted from economic regulation through provisions in various pieces of legislation;the appropriate rates and services must be negotiated directly between the carrier and user.nPrivat

        38、e CarrierPrivate carrier,which are exempt from any economic regulation,are companies whose primary business is other than transportation and provide their own transportation service by operating trucks,railcars,barges,ships,or airlines.Legal Classification of CarriersnPrivate CarrierAdvantages to pr

        39、ivate transportation:Operational control;Cost-effectiveness;The terms of international trade nDAF(Delivered At Frontier)-Appointed place The two parties(Seller&Buyer)identify a location of delivery at two countries frontier.The sellers basic obligations are transporting the commodities to the appoin

        40、ted location,clear the goods for export,and place them at the buyers party,then the delivery is finished.The buyer is obliged to take the delivery in the delivery place at the frontier,handle import formalities,and take the risks of the commodities and reliability&expenditures during the left course

        41、 of transportation.The terms of international trade Considerations when DAF is used:a.The issue of risk transfer;b.The issue of delivery at the frontier;c.The issue of the identity of shipping agency.The terms of international trade nDES(Delivered Ex Ship)-Appointed Port of Destination The seller is

        42、 obliged to transport the contract-appointed commodities to the port of destination through the usual routine and by the confirmed mode,and place the commodities at the buyers party on the ship of the port of destination before the deadline,but does not have to conduct the import formalities,then th

        43、e delivery can be finished.The commodities risks are transferred from the seller to the buyer when delivery on the ship.The seller is responsible for all the risks and expenditures of commodities until they are delivered.If any party needs the seller to take the risks&expenditures during unloading,D

        44、EQ is preferred.The terms of international trade Considerations when DES is used:a.The sellers obligation to notify the buyer;b.The issue of commodity delivery and receive;c.The difference between DES and CIF.Learning objective nTo understand the nature of transportation nTo learn the five modes of

        45、transportationnTo know about the important feature of maritime shippingnTo get familiar with intermodal transport Text 3:Introduction of TransportationKey terms:ntransportation 運輸ntransportation mode 運輸方式nroad transportation 公路運輸nrail transportation 鐵路運輸nwaterway transportation 水路運輸nair transportati

        46、on 航空運輸npipeline transportation 管道運輸nintermodal transportation 多式聯運General Introduction of TransportationnWhat is transportation?nTransportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.nmajor modes of transportation:nRailway transportation,road transportation,waterway transport

        47、ation,air transportation and pipeline transportation nIntermodal transportation occurs when two modes or more work closely together on a regular basis,utilizing the advantage of each others.Diversity of Transportation Modesn Road transportationnPlease read the paragraphs about road transportation an

        48、d discuss:nwhat are the most important characteristics of road transportation?nAnswer:n capable of providing a door to door service nflexible enough to perform“just-in-time”delivery nfor higher-value/lower-volume cargo over relatively short distance nIntense competition Rail transportationnPlease re

        49、ad the paragraphs about rail transportation and discuss:nwhat are the most important characteristics of rail transportation?nAnswer:n offers cost-effective transport over long distancesngood for cargos with high volume and low value nConsumes less energy Waterway transportationnWaterway transportati

        50、on includes maritime transportation and river transportation.nThe most important characteristics of waterway transportation include:nbig capacity,good for large quantity of cargosnconnects ports from different continentsnthe cleanest among all transportation modes NileEast/Southeast AsiaMississippi/

        51、Great Lakes/St.LawrenceAmazonRhine/DanubeSuezSuezHormuzHormuzPanamaPanamaMalaccaMalaccaBosporusBosporusMagellanMagellanGood HopeGood HopeGibraltarGibraltarBab el-MandabBab el-Mandab Air transportation nThe most important characteristics of air transportation include:n It offer rapid,flexible deliver

        52、y n expensive compared to the charges of land and ocean freight n mainly for valuable or perishable goodsn air freight services tended to be unreliable Pipelines transportation nThe most important characteristics of pipeline transportation include:ndesigned for a specific purpose only,to carry one c

        53、ommodity from a location to another neffective in transporting large quantities of products nlink isolated areas of production with major centers of refining and manufacture Competition between Transportation Modesn each of transportation mode has its key operational and commercial advantages(See Ta

        54、ble 2-1).nAs a result,modes can compete or complement each other in terms of cost,speed,accessibility,frequency,safety,comfort,etc.Notes:n1.Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.Railway transportation,road transportation,waterway transportation,air transportati

        55、on and pipeline transportation make up the major modes of transport in modern society.運輸是人和物品在兩地之間的移動?,F代社會的主要運輸方式包括鐵路運輸、公路運輸、水路運輸、航空運輸和管道運輸。n2.Intermodal transportation occurs when two modes or more work closely together on a regular basis,utilizing the advantage of each others.多式聯運是指兩種或兩種以上的運輸方式利用各

        56、自優勢,進行常規的合作。3.In road transport market,operators are able to use existing roadway infrastructure and do not need to put in a big capital investment ahead of time.Hence,there are lots of competitors offering the same kind of service with competitive prices.在公路運輸市場中,承運人可以使用現有的公路設施,無須先進行大量的資本投入。因此這個市場中

        57、競爭者很多,他們以有競爭力的價格提供相似的服務。n4.Rail offers the cost-effective transport of large quantities of cargos over long distances.It is especially good for cargos with high volume and low value,such as coal,timber and grain.鐵路為大宗貨物的長距離運輸提供經濟的運輸服務。體積大、價值低的貨物,比如煤炭、木材和谷物,特別適合使用鐵路進行運輸。n5.It offer rapid,flexible del

        58、ivery,but it is also perceived as expensive compared to the charges of land and ocean freight.Bulky cargo with low unit value can not afford to ship by air.它能提供快速、靈活、機動的運輸服務,但是大家認為和水陸貨物運輸相比,航空費用昂貴。低值而體積大的貨物難以承受航空運輸的價格 n6.As a result,modes can compete or complement each other in terms of cost,speed,a

        59、ccessibility,frequency,safety,comfort,etc.因此,運輸方式之間能夠在成本、速度、可得性、經常性(服務頻率)、安全性和舒適程度等方面相互競爭或補充。Topic for Discussion:討論話題n1.Discuss the important role transportation plays in logistics system.n2.The picture below shows us the capacity differences of a variety of transport modes,please discuss:why are t

        60、hese differences important to us?Text 4 Maritime ShippingnKey termsnmaritime shipping 海洋運輸海洋運輸nbulk cargo 散裝貨物散裝貨物nbreak-bulk cargo 件雜貨件雜貨nbulk carrier 散貨船散貨船ngeneral cargo ship 雜貨船雜貨船nroll on-roll off(RORO)vessels 滾裝船滾裝船ncharter services 不定期租船服務不定期租船服務nliner services 班輪服務班輪服務Maritime FreightnMariti

        61、me freight is considered in two categories:bulk cargo and break bulk cargo.n Bulk cargonBulk cargo refers to freight,both dry or liquid,that is not packaged,such as minerals(oil,coal,iron ore)and grains.n Break-bulk cargonBreak-bulk cargo refers to general cargo that has been packaged in some ways w

        62、ith the use of bags,boxes or drums.Cargo Ships Bulk carriersnBulk carriers are ships designed to carry specific commoditiesnand are differentiated into liquid bulk and dry bulk vessels nThey include the largest vessels afloat General cargo ships nGeneral cargo ships are vessels designed to carry non

        63、-bulk cargoes(break-bulk cargoes)nThe traditional ships were less than 10 000 dwt(dead weight ton)nMore recently these vessels have been replaced by container ships.Why so?Roll on-roll off(RORO)vesselsnRORO vessels are designed to allow cars,trucks and trains to be loaded directly on boardnOriginall

        64、y appearing as ferries,these vessels are used on deep-sea trades and are much larger than the typical ferryShipping Services Charter services(also known as Tramp).In this form of service,a maritime company rents a ship for a specific purpose,commonly between specific ports of origin and destination

        65、Charter service is notably used in the case of bulk cargoLiner services.Liner offer shipping space,as common carriers,on ships playing along fixed routes on regular schedule principally engaged in carrying general cargo in relatively small shipments and limited volumes The Drawbacks of Maritime Ship

        66、ping nRead the last paragraph of the text and find out what are the main drawbacks of maritime shipping?nAnswer:nIt is slow compared with other transport modesnloading and unloading takes lots of time and can cause delay n Notes:n1.It often requires the use of specialized ships such as oil tankers as well as specialized transshipment and storage facilities.這常常需要使用到專用船,比如油船或其他專用轉運設備和存儲設施。n2.Before containerization,economies of scale were difficult to achieve with break-bulk cargo as the loading a

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